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"Does Gender Matter? An Assessment of Sex-Disaggregation in

MKUKUTA Monitoring Report"

A strategy for making sure that both women and men have equal opportunities to participate and benefit from the development programs and projects. It is a strategy for bringing about gender equality and women’s empowerment through creating space for women and men to contribute to, and benefit from the development process for sustainable human development. Gender mainstreaming means including women; and does not mean excluding men.Policy Forum on this month’s Debate dedicated to the issue of MKUKUTA assessment of sex-Disaggregation. The presentations debate was done by Prof. Ophelia Mascarenhas, retired professor from University of Dar es Salaam and Ms. Shamshad Rehmatullah, Independent Consultant. Mr. Alex Ruchyahinduru facilitated the debate.

The first presentation was done by Ms. Shamshad Rehmatullah; she started by definition of the key concept, objective and aim of the study. She said that the aim of the study was to establish the level of gender mainstreaming, data disaggregation and gender analysis in the MKUKUTA Monitoring Reports and the objective was to assess the levels of sex-disaggregation, gender analysis and mainstreaming, in the MKUKUTA Monitoring Reports published to date; to collect information from key institutions and persons responsible for contributing to and compiling the MKUKUTA reports/documents in order to identify the constraints for mainstreaming issues and disaggregation of data by sex in these reports; to make suggestions on how to improve the process just to mention a few.

She further gave the background of the MKUKUTA by saying that; MKUKUTA is a 5 year program3005/05 to 2009/10, is a broad based strategy that recognizes the gender inequities have a major impact on poverty and that these inequities have to be addressed, and that poverty is multifaceted.Its provisions are divided into three clusters; Cluster One: focuses on Growth and Reduction of Income Poverty; Cluster Two: focuses on Improvement of the Quality of Life and Social Well-Being; and Cluster Three: focuses on Governance and Accountability. Each of these three Clusters has broad Outcomes with a set of Goals and Operational Targets, and Cluster Strategies for each goal. Each cluster has intervention strategy packages, guide to cross sector collaboration and key actors that should be involved in implementing the strategies.

Information Sought was the extent to which data and information in the Reports is disaggregated by gender generally; how far have Reports provided sex disaggregated data for the MKUKUTA indicators that were designated to be disaggregated by sex; whether Reports include a gender analysis in general, by all sectors, and any sectors and whether sex disaggregated data and gender analysis have resulted in specific recommendations that could enhance gender mainstreaming in the implementation of MKUKUTA.If you look on Membership of Technical Committee and Working Groups by Sex membership of each of these institutions is broad based with representation from Government, Academia and Research Organizations, Development Partners Group (DPG), Civil Society Organizations and the Private Sector. The best gender balance is obtained in the Technical Committee and the lowest gender balance is in the Secretariat. The MKUKUTA Secretariat is especially noticeable with a low female proportion of members, which is also the Poverty Eradication and Economic Empowerment Division whose only female member is the Head of this division and thus of the Secretariat.

The second presentation was done by Ophelia Mascarenhas outlining on how the gender assessment level was done, she said that, The Gender Assessment was done at 3 levels that is Assessment of disaggregation of data by sex, Extent of gender analysis carried out based on the data and Level of gender mainstreaming emanating from the analysis. The MMS had specified a number of the poverty indicators to be disaggregated by gender. (Hereinafter referred to as “gender indicators” Distribution whereby Cluster One: Growth and Reduction of Poverty - 9/28 or32%, Cluster Two: Improvement of the Quality of Life - 22/31 or 71%, Cluster Three: Governance and Accountability 7/25 or 28%, In addition, 3 were added: maternal mortality, births delivered in health facilities and % of schools with adequate sanitary facilities. This gave a total of 41indicators that were assessed.

She further explained that, Methodology for Categorization of the levels of Gender Analysis was based on Goals rather than on indicators and Consultants developed following categorization None; Low; Fair and Good. Three out of 8 reports scored “Good;” one scored fair; four scored low. For those that scored “Good” - just one goal each and within this goal discussing only one of the gender indicators. Good opportunities for analysis often missed. National Surveys: Good in the thematic surveys (THMIS, ILFS); less in the general surveys such as the HBS. Most frequent MKUKUTA goal that analyzed was education and no study on Gender specific issues in growth and poverty reduction among the special studies commissioned by RAWG.

On her conclusion remark she gave the challenges and recommendation, she said that, there was Unavailability (not always true), Inadequate awareness and Reluctance to use non-official sources of data on getting Data disaggregated by sex. Also there were no official guidelines on data collection; authors of MMR sections are good on sectors; but not on gender and no acknowledgement of the need for expertise in gender. No Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming in the Preparation of the MMRs that means, TORs do not include need for a gender perspective; and no gender auditing of TORs or the Drafts of MMRs Accountability was also an issue since no one is taken to task if gender is not covered in MMRs and even the DPG-GE feels that they do not have a voice since MCDGC has no mandate to hold MDAs accountable for sex disaggregated data. Worse enough there is no demand for lack of policy for disaggregated data; since there are very few representatives of gender experts on RAWG and other TWGs.

Finally she recommended that, there is a need for Gender Mainstreaming at Policy Level so as to make gender analysis based on sex disaggregated data mandatory for all MMRs and Issue a Government directive that all data collected by MDAs/LGAs must be disaggregated by female/male. Also enhance gender awareness among national institutions such as Parliament on this CSO’s should be pro-active in getting the MMRs to be more gender aware and CSO’s and other stakeholders should do their own analysis – kind of “Shadow Report”.

Comments and Questions from Plenary Discussion:

1. You looked at the monitoring reports. Were gender issues looked at in the budget estimates or budget speeches? Gender CSOs are not deeply involved, do they see monitoring processes as an effective way of bringing about change?

2. Government is recruiting gender experts for MKUKUTA review so this is quite a timely presentation. But we need to have those gender experts on board. Another issue is accountability. I noted that the ministry has no power to bring those who do not mainstream gender to account. We need to support the ministry and the gender machinery to make sure these issues are taken up and we look at additional ways of mainstreaming gender.

3. I liked the practical suggestions. However, I think from the HBS survey it would have been hard top disaggregate data. Gender-based violence modules will be included in the next monitoring reports.

4. Gender mainstreaming requires a budget. Was this looked into?

5. CSOs feel excluded in the MKUKUTA review. Is this true? CSOs should be included right from the start.

6. Poverty reduction is not the priority of the government. Neither is gender mainstreaming.

Respond to the Comments and Responds:

Ministry is unable to follow up due to the hierarchy involved. Ministry of Finance and other MDAs come up higher than the ministry of community development. The Act exists but there has to be a specific directive for the ministry to press other ministries to collect gender data.

TAMWA, TGNP, and other groups collected gender-based violence information. So data is on the rise. However, if you do not have the expertise in gender-mainstreaming and gender analysis, it is difficult to do.

MKUKUTA is supposed to be the strategy to reduce poverty. So gender analysis has to be included so that policy can be changed. MKUKUTA has a budget for producing such a report but it has never been applied. They do not see the need for it that is why it is not being used.

Mr. Alex Ruchyahinduru from policy forum closed the discussion and welcomed the participants to the next 7:30 Breakfast Debate in the coming month.